Hello students in this post im going to share ICARAIEEA2021 syllabus, as we can see that total syllabus is 90% similar to TSEAMCET/APEAPCET.
SYLLABUS
FOR ICAR’S ALL INDIA ENTRANCE EXAMINATION FOR ADMISSION TO BACHELOR DEGREE
PROGRAMMES
PHYSICS
Unit1: 
Physical World and Measurement 

Physics scope and
excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. Need
for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units,
fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy
and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant
figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its
applications. 
Unit2: 
Kinematics 

Frame of reference.
Motion in a straight line: Positiontime graph, speed and velocity. Uniform
and nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly
accelerated motion: velocitytime graph, positiontime graphs, relations for
uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Elementary concepts of
differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector
quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation,
equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and
subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a
vector in a plane  rectangular components. Motion in a plane. Cases of
uniform velocity and uniform accelerationprojectile motion. Uniform circular
motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space. Motion of objects in
three dimensional space. 
Unit3: 
Laws of Motion 

Intuitive concept of
force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second
law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of
linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of
uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion
(vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road). 
Unit4: 
Work, Energy and
Power 

Scalar product of
vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy,
workenergy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a
spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and
potential energies); nonconservative forces: elastic and inelastic
collisions in one and two dimensions. 
Unit5: 
Motion of System
of Particles and Rigid Body 

Centre of mass of a
twoparticle system, momentum conversation and centre of mass motion. Centre
of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Vector product of
vectors; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular
momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation
and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational
motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia
for simple geometrical objects. Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes
theorems and their applications. 
Unit6: 
Gravitation 

Keplar’s laws of
planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to
gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential
energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a
satellite. Geostationary satellites. 
Unit7: 
Properties of
Bulk Matter 

Elastic behaviour,
Stressstrain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus,
shear, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and
its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on
fluid pressure. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number,
streamline and turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface
tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. 

Heat,
temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat  calorimetry; change of state
 latent heat. Heat transferconduction, convection and radiation, thermal
conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling. 
Unit8: 
Thermodynamics 

Thermal equilibrium and
definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and
internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics:
reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators. 
Unit9: 
Behaviour of
Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory 

Equation of state of a
perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases  assumptions,
concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas
molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement
only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path,
Avogadro’s number. 
Unit10:
Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion  period,
frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple
Harmonic Motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a
spring–restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. kinetic and
potential energies; simple pendulum– derivation of expression for its time
period; free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance. Wave motion.
Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation
for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of
waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and
harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
Unit11:
Electrostatics
Electric Charges;
Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law  force between two point charges, forces
between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge
distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric
field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a
dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem
and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire,
uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical
shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric
potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential
surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of
electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free
charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric
polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series
and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without
dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de
Graaff generator.
Unit12: Current Electricity
Electric current,
flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and
their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V  I
characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power,
electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for
carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature
dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference
and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchoff’s
laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer 
principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for
comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit13:
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic
field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot  Savart law and its application to current
carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long
straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in
uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a currentcarrying
conductor in a
uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel
currentcarrying conductorsdefinition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current
loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometerits current
sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a
magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a
revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar
magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic
dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent
solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Para, dia and ferro  magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and
factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
14: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating
Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law,
induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.
Need for displacement current. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of
alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations
(qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC
circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.
Unit15:
Electromagnetic waves
Displacement
current, Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas
only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum
(radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays)
including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit16:
Optics
Reflection
of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its
applications, optical fibres, refraction at
spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula.
Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact.
Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light  blue
colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction
of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using
lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and
their magnifying powers. Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle,
reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts.
Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width,
coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a
single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and
astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law,
uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Unit17:
Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of
radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s
photoelectric equationparticle nature of light. Matter waveswave nature of
particles, de Broglie relation. DavissonGermer experiment.
Unit18:
Atoms & Nuclei
Alphaparticle
scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels,
hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes,
isobars; isotones. Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and
their properties; radioactive decay law. Massenergy relation, mass defect;
binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission,
nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion.
Unit19:
Electronic Devices
Semiconductors;
semiconductor diode – I V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode
as a rectifier; I  V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener
diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor
action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common
emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and
NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Unit20:
Communication Systems
Elements of a
communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and
digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic
waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation.
Production and detection of an amplitudemodulated wave.
CHEMISTRY
Unit1: Some
Basic Concepts of Chemistry
General Introduction:
Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of
matter,
laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s
atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular
masses mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and
molecular formula chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on
stoichiometry.
2: 
Solid State Classification of
solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and
metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit
cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of
density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell
in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. 
Unit3: 
Solutions 

Types of solutions,
expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of
gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering
of vapour pressure, elevation of Boiling Point, depression of freezing point,
osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative
properties, abnormal molecular mass. 
Unit4: 
Structure of
Atom 

Discovery of
electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s
model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s
model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of
matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty
principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d
orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals  Aufbau principle, Pauli
exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms,
stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. 
Unit5: 
Classification
of Elements and Periodicity in Properties


Significance of
classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern
periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in
properties of elements atomic radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy,
electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence. 
Unit6: 
Chemical Bonding
and Molecular Structure 

Valence electrons,
ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character
of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory,
resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR (Valence shell electron pair
repulsion) theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals
and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homonuclear
diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond. 
Unit7: 
States of
Matter: Gases and Liquids 

Three states of matter.
Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points.
Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law.
Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behaviour, empirical
derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation
from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid
State  Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only,
no mathematical derivations). 
Unit8: 
Thermodynamics 

Concepts of System,
types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics  internal energy
and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of DU and DH,
Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation,
ionization, and solution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, free
energy change for spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes, criteria for
equilibrium. 
Unit9: 
Equilibrium 

Equilibrium in physical
and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action,
equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium  Le Chatelier’s
principle; ionic equilibrium  ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak
electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts.
Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect. 
Unit10:
Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation
and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions,
applications of redox reactions.
11: Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table,
occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides 
ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water,
heavy water; hydrogen peroxidepreparation, properties and structure; hydrogen
as a fuel.
Unit12:
sBlock Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group
1 and Group 2 elements
General
introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the
first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of
properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in
chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Unit13:
Preparation and properties of some important compounds
Sodium carbonate,
sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological
importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO_{3} and industrial use of
lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca
Unit14:
Some pBlock Elements General Introduction to pBlock
Elements: Group 13 elements
General
introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties,
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first
element of the group; Boron physical and chemical properties, some important
compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminum: uses, reactions with
acids and alkalies.
Unit15:
Group 14 elements
General
introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties,
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behavior of first
element, Carbon  catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical
properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of
silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and
zeolites.
Unit16:
Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles and Techniques
General
introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification
and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds, Electronic displacements in a
covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper
conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free
radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of
organic reactions
Unit17:
Hydrocarbons Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes  Nomenclature, isomerism,
conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including
free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes  Nomenclature, structure of
double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of
preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen
halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation,
mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes  Nomenclature, structure of
triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical
reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of  hydrogen,
halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC
nomenclature; benzene: resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism
of electrophilic substitution. – nitration, sulphonation, halogenation,
FriedelCraft’s alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional
group in monosubstituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Unit18:
Electrochemistry
Conductance in
electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of
conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of
electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic
cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst
equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
Unit19:
Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction
(average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration,
temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and
specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero
and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no
mathematical treatment)
Unit20:
Surface Chemistry
Adsorption –
physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on
solids; catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity:
enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids
and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular
colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement,
electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion – types of emulsions.
Unit21:
General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and
methods of extraction  concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method
and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper,
zinc and iron.
Unit22:
pBlock Elements Group 15 elements
General
introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in
physical and chemical properties; nitrogen  preparation, properties and uses;
compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid,
oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorousallotropic forms; compounds of
phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl_{3},
PCl_{5}) and oxoacids
Unit23:
Group 16 elements
General
introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in
physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses;
simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur  allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur:
preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial
process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures
only).
Unit24:
Group 17 elements
General
introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in
physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation,
properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds,
oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Unit25: Group 18 elements
General introduction,
electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical
properties, uses.
Unit26:
d and f Block Elements
General introduction
,electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals,
general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic
character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic
property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation
preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids
 electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and
lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids
 Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit27:
Coordination Compounds
Coordination
compounds  Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic
properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination
compounds. bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in
qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit28:
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes:
Nomenclature, nature of CX bond, physical and chemical properties,
mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of CX bond,
substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted
compounds only) Uses and environmental effects of  dichloromethane,
trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit29:
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Alcohols
Nomenclature,
methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols
only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of
dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol. Phenols
: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties,
acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of
phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature,
methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit30:
Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature,
nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in
aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic
Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and
chemical properties; uses.
Unit31:
Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification,
structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses,
identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides
and Isocyanides  will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium
salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic
chemistry.
Unit32:
Biomolecules
Carbohydrates Classification (aldoses and
ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose,
lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.
Proteins  Elementary idea of áamino
acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of aminesprimary,
secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea
only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins
 Classification and functions.
Nucleic
Acids: DNA and RNA .
Unit33:
Polymers
Classification 
natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like
polythene, nylon, polyesters, Bakelite, rubber.
Unit34:
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental
pollution  air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere,
smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects
of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming  pollution
due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing
pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
Unit35:
Chemistry in Everyday life
1. Chemicals in medicines  analgesics,
tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility
drugs, antibiotics, antacids,
antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food  preservatives,
artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents  soaps and
detergents, cleansing action.
BIOLOGY (BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY)
Unit : 1 
The Living World


Nature
and scope of Biology. Methods of Biology. Our place in the universe. Laws
that govern the universe and life. Level of organization. Cause and effect
relationship. 

Being alive. What does
it mean? Present approaches to understand life processes, molecular approach;
life as an expression of energy; steady state and homeostasis; self
duplication and survival; adaptation; death as a positive part of life. 

Origin of life and its maintenance. Origin and
diversity of life. Physical and chemical principles that maintain life
processes. The living crust and interdependence. The positive and negative
aspects of progress in biological sciences. The future of the living world,
identification of human responsibility in shaping our future. 
Unit : 2 
Unit of Life 

Cell as a unit of life.
Small biomolecules; water, minerals, mono and oligosaccharides, lipids, amino
acids, nucleotides and their chemistry, cellular location and function.
Macromolecules in cells  their chemistry, cellular location and functional
significance. Polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. Enzymes; chemical
nature, classification, mechanism in actionenzyme complex, allosteric
modulation (brief), irreversible activation. Biomembranes; Fluid mosaic model
of membrane, role in transport, recognition of external information (brief).
Structural organization of the cell; light and electron microscopic views of
cell, its organelles and their functions; nucleus mitochondria, chloroplasts,
endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi complex, lysosomes, microtubules, cell wall,
cilia and flagella, vacuoles, cell inclusions. A general account of cellular
respiration. Fermentation, biological oxidation (A cycle outline),
mitochondrial electron transport chain, high energy bonds and oxidative
phosphorylation, cell reproduction; Process of mitosis and meiosis. 
Unit : 3 
Diversity of
Life 

Introduction. The
enormous variety of living things, the need for classification to cope with
this variety; taxonomy and phylogeny; shortcomings of a two kingdom
classification as plants and animals; the five kingdom classification,
Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi and Animalia; the basic features of five
kingdom classification. modes of obtaining nutritionautotrophs and
heterotrophs. Life style producers, consumers and decomposers. Unicellularity
and multicellularity, phylogenetic relationships. Concepts of species, taxon
and categories  hierarchical levels of classification; binomial
nomenclature; principles of classification and nomenclature; identification
and nature of viruses and bacteriophages; kingdom Moneraarcheabacteria 
life in extreme environments; Bacteria, Actinomycetes, Cyanobacteria.
Examples & illustration of autotrophic and heterotrophic life;
mineralizesnitrogen fixers; Monera in cycling matter; symbiotic forms;
disease producers. Kingdom ProtistaEukaryotic unicellular organisms, development
of flagella and cilia; beginning of mitosis; syngamy and sex. Various life
styles shown in the major phyla. Evolutionary precursors of complex life
forms. Diatoms, dinoflagellates, slime moulds, protozons; symbiotic forms.
Plant kingdomcomplex autotrophs, red brown and green algae; conquest of
land, bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Vascularization;
development of flower, fruit and seed. Kingdom fungilower fungi
(Zygomycetes), higher fungi (Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes); the importance
of fungi. Decomposers; parasitic forms; lichens and mycorrhizae. Animal
kingdomanimal body pattern and symmetry. The development of body cavity in
invertebrate vertebrate physia. Salient features with reference to habitat
and example of phylum porifera, coelenterata, helminthis, annelids, mollusca,
arthropoda, echinoderms; chordata  (classesfishes, amphibians, reptiles,
birds and mammals) highlighting major characters. 
Unit : 4 
Organisms and
Environment 

Species: Origin and concept
of species population, interaction between environment and population
community. Biotic community,
interaction between different species, biotic stability. Changes in the
community. Succession. Ecosystem; interaction between biotic and abiotic
components; major ecosystems, manmade ecosystem Agro ecosystem. Biosphere;
flow of energy, trapping of solar energy, energy pathway, food chain, food
web, biogeochemical cycles, calcium and sulphur, ecological imbalance and its
consequences. Conservation of natural resources; renewable and nonrenewable
(in brief). Water and land management, wasteland development. Wild life and
forest conservation; causes for the extinction of some wild life, steps taken
to conserve the remaining species, concept of endangered speciesIndian
examples, conservation of forests; Indian forests, importance of forests,
hazards of deforestation, concept of afforestation. Environmental pollution; 
air and water pollution, sources, major
pollutants of big cities of our country, their effects and methods of control,
pollution due to nuclear fallout and waste disposal, effect and control, noise
pollution; sources and effects.
Unit : 5 
Multicellularity :
Structure and Function  Plant Life 

Form and function.
Tissue system in flowering plants; meristematic and permanent. Mineral
nutritionessential elements, major functions of different elements, passive
and active uptake of minerals. Modes of nutrition, transport of solutes and
water in plants. Photosynthesis; photochemical and biosynthetic phases,
diversity in photosynthetic pathways, photosynthetic electron transport and
photophosphorylation, photorespiration. Transpiration and exchange of gases.
Stomatal mechanism. Osmoregulation in plants: water relations in plant cells,
water potential. Reproduction and development in Angiosperms; asexual and
sexual reproduction. Structure and functions of flower: development of male
and female gametophytes in angiosperms, pollination, fertilization and
development of endosperm, embryo seed and fruit. Differentiation and organ
formation. Plant hormones and growth regulation; action of plant hormones in
relation to seed dormancy and germination, apical dominance, senescence and
abscission. Applications of synthetic growth regulators. A brief account of
growth and movement in plants. 
Unit : 6 
Multicellularity :
Structure and Function  Animal Life 

Animal tissues,
epithelial, connective, muscular, nerve. Animal nutrition, organs of
digestion and digestive process, nutritional requirements for carbohydrates,
proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins; nutritional imbalances and deficiency
diseases. Gas exchange and transport: Pulmonary gas exchange and organs
involved, transport of gases in blood, gas exchange in aqueous media
circulation: closed and open vascular systems, structure and pumping action
of heart, arterial blood pressure, lymph. Excretion and osomoregulation.
Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, urecotelism, excretion of water and urea with
special reference to man. Role of kidney in regulation of plasma, osmolarity
on the basis of nephron structure, skin and lungs in excretion. Hormonal
coordination; hormones of mammals, role of hormones as messengers and
regulators. Nervous coordination, central autonomic and peripheral nervous
systems, receptors, effectors, reflex action, basic physiology of special senses,
integrative control by neuroendocrinal systems. Locomotion: joints, muscle
movements, types of skeletal muscles according to types of movement, basic
aspects of human skeleton. Reproduction; human reproduction, female
reproductive cycles. Embryonic development in mammals (upto three germs
layers), growth, repair and ageing. 
Unit : 7 
Continuity of Life 

Heredity and
variation: Introduction, Mendel’s experiments with peas and concepts of
factors. Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Genes: Packaging of heredity material
in prokaryotesbacterial chromosome and plasmid; and eukaryote chromosomes.
Extranuclear genes, viral genes. Linkage (genetic) maps. Sex determination
and sex linkage. Genetic material and its replication, gene manipulation.
Gene expression; genetic code, transcription, translation, gene regulation.
Molecular basis of differentiation. 
Unit : 8 
Origin and Evolution
of Life 

Origin of life: living
and nonliving, chemical evolution, organic evolution; Oparin ideas,
MillerUrey experiments. Interrelationship
among living organisms and evidences of evolution: fossil records including
geological scale, Morphological evidence  hematology, vestigeal organs,
embryological similarities and biogeographical evidence. 

Darwin’s two major
contributions. Common origin of living organisms and recombination as source
of variability, selection and variation, adaptation (Lederberg’s replica
plating experiment for indirect selection of bacterial mutants), reproductive
isolation, speciation. Role of selection, change and drift in determining
composition of population. Selected examples: industrial melanism; drug
resistance, mimicry, malaria in relation to G6PD deficiency and sickle cell
disease. Human evolution: Palcontological evidence, man’s place among
mammals. Brief idea of Dryopithecus, Australopithecus, Homo erectus, H.neanderthlensis,
CroMagnon man and Homo sapiens.
Human chromosomes, similarity in different racial groups. Comparison with
chromosomes of nonhuman primates to indicate common origin; Cultural vs.
biological evolution. 

Mutation: origin and types of mutation, their role in
speciation. 
Unit : 9 
Application of
Biology 

Introduction, role of biology, in the amelioration of
human problems. Domestication of plant a historical account, improvement of
crop plants; Principles of plant breeding and plant introduction. Use of
fertilizers, their economic and ecological aspects. 

Use of
pesticides: advantages and hazards. Biological methods of pest control. Crops
today. Current concerns, gene pools and genetic conservation. Underutilized
crops with potential uses of oilseeds, medicines, beverages, spices, fodder,
New cropsLeucaena (Subabul), Jojoba, Guayule, winged bean, etc.
Biofertilizers  green manure, crop residues and nitrogen fixation
(symbiotic, non symbiotic). Applications of tissue culture and genetic
engineering in crops. Domestication and introduction of animals. Livestock,
poultry, fisheries (fresh water, marine, aquaculture). Improvement of
animals: principles of animal breeding. Major animal diseases and their
control. Insects and their products (silk, honey, wax and lac).
Bioenergybiomass, wood (combustion; gasification, ethanol). Cow dung cakes,
gobar gas, plants as sources of hydrocarbons for producing petroleum, ethanol
from starch and lignocellulose. Biotechnology, application in health and
agriculture, genetically modified (GM) organisms, biosafety issues. A brief
historical accountmanufacture of cheese. yoghurt, alcohol, yeast, vitamins,
organic acids, antibiotics, steroids, dextrins. Scaling up laboratory
findings to Industrial production, sewage treatment. Production of insulin,
human growth hormones, interferon. Communicable diseases including STD and
diseases spread through ‘blood transfusion (hepatitis, AIDS, etc) Immune
response, vaccine and antisera. Allergies and Inflammation. Inherited
diseases and dysfunctions, sexlinked diseases, genetic incompatibilities,
and genetic counseling. Cancermajor types, causes, diagnosis and treatment.
Tissue and organ transplantation. Community health services and measures;
blood banks; mental health, smoking, alcoholism and drug
addictionphysiological symptoms and control measures. Industrial wastes,
toxicology, pollutionrelated diseases. Biomedical engineering  spare parts
for man, instruments for diagnosis of diseases and care. Human population
related diseases. Human population, growth, problems and control, inequality
between sexes, control measures; testtube babies aminocentesis. Future of
Biology. MATHEMATICS 
Unit1: 
Sets and Functions 

1.
Sets : Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite &
Infinite sets. Equal sets. Subsets, Subsets of the set of real numbers
especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn
diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a
set. 

2.
Relations & Functions: Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of
sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets.
Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R). Definition of
relation, Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and
equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions,
inverse of a function. Binary operations, Pictorial representation of a
function, domain. Codomain and range of a relation. Function as a special
kind of relation from one set to another. Real valued function of the real
variable, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity,
polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with
their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions. 

3.
Trigonometric Functions: Positive and negative angles. Measuring
angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to
another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle.
Truth of the identity sin2x +
cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs.
Expressing sin (x+y) and cos (x+y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx&cosy. Deducing the identities like the
following: 
Identities
related to sin2x, cos2x, tan2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of
trigonometric equations of the type sin è ?= sin á, cos è ?= cos á ?and tan è
?= tan á.
Inverse Trigonometric Functions: Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.Properties of triangles, including centroid, incentre, circumcentre and orthocentre, Solution of triangles. Heights and Distances.
Unit2: Algebra
1. Principle of Mathematical Induction: Processes
of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking
at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle
of mathematical induction and simple applications.
2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations: Need
for complex numbers, especially 1, to be motivated by inability to solve every
quadratic equation. Brief description of algebraic properties of complex
numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of
Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex
number system.
3. Linear Inequalities: Linear
inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and
their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear
inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two
variables graphically.
4. Permutations & Combinations: Fundamental
principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!). Permutations and combinations,
derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.
5. Binomial Theorem: History, statement
and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices.
Pascal’s triangle, General and middle term
in binomial expansion, simple applications.
6. Sequence and Series: Sequence and
Series. Arithmetic progression (A. P.). arithmetic mean (A.M.) Geometric
progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and
G.M. Sum to n terms of the special
series Ón, Ón2 and Ón3.
7. Matrices: Concept, notation, order,
equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and
skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of
matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar
multiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence
of nonzero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square
matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations.
Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists.
8. Determinants: Determinant of a square
matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors
and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and
inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions
of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations
in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
Unit3: Coordinate
Geometry
1. Straight Lines:Slope of a line and
angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to
axes, pointslope form, slopeintercept form, twopoint form, intercepts form
and normal form. General equation of a line. Distance of a point from a line.
2. Conic Sections: Sections of a cone:
circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of
intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations
and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of
a circle.
3. Introduction to Threedimensional Geometry:
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a
point. Distance between two points and section formula.
Unit4: Calculus
1. Limits and Derivatives: Derivative
introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and
geometrically, intuitive idea of limit. Definition of derivative, relate it to
slope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and
quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.
2. Continuity and Differentiability: Continuity
and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule,
derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit
function. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their
derivative. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in
parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value
Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.
3. Applications of Derivatives: Applications
of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents
&normals, approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated
geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple
problems.
4. Integrals: Integration as inverse
process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by
substitution, by partial fractions and by parts; only simple integrals of the
type

to be evaluated. Definite integrals as
a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic
properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals. 

5. Applications of the Integrals: Applications
in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/
parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), area between the two above said
curves. 

6.
Differential Equations: Definition, order and degree, general and
particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential
equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of
separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order
and first degree. Solutions of linear 

differential
equation of the type:^{𝑑𝑦}+𝑝𝑦=𝑞,
where p and q are functions of x. 𝑑𝑥 
Unit5:

Vectors and
ThreeDimensional Geometry 

1.
Vectors: Vectors and
scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of
vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear
vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a
vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position
vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot)
product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product
of vectors. 

2.
Threedimensional Geometry: Direction cosines/ratios of a line
joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and
skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector
equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes. (iii) a
line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane. 
Unit6: Linear Programming Linear Programming: Introduction,
definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function,
optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems,
mathematical formulation of L.P. 
problems, graphical method of solution for
problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and
infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivial
constraints).
Unit7: Mathematical
Reasoning
Mathematical
Reasoning: Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases

consolidating the understanding of “if and only if (necessary
and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”,
“implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists”
and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics.
Validating the statements involving the connecting words, difference between
contradiction, converse and contrapositive.
Unit8: Statistics
& Probability
1.
Statistics:
Measures of central tendency,mean, median and mode from ungrouped/grouped
data. Measures of dispersion, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation
from ungrouped/grouped data. Correlation, regression lines.
2.
Probability:
Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events:
occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually
exclusive events Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, Probability of an
event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ & ‘or’ events. Multiplication theorem on
probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability,
Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and
variance of stochastic variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and
Binomial distribution.
Unit9: Statics
Introduction, basic
concepts and basic laws of mechanics, force, resultant of forces acting at a
point, parallelogram law of forces, resolved parts of a force, Equilibrium of a
particle under three concurrent forces.
Triangle law of forces and its converse,
Lami’s theorem and its converse, Two Parallel forces, like and unlike parallel
forces, couple and its moment.
Unit10: Dynamics

Speed and velocity,
average speed, instantaneous speed, acceleration and retardation, resultant
of two velocities. Motion of a particle along a line, moving with constant
acceleration. Motion under gravity. Laws of motion, Projectile motion. AGRICULTURE 
Unit1: 
Agrometeorology,
Genetics and Plant Breeding, Biochemistry and Microbiology 

Agrometerology: Elements of
Weatherrainfall, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, Sunshine weather
forecasting, climate change in relation to crop production. 

Genetics & Plant Breeding : (a)
Cell and its structure, cell divisionmitosis and meiosis and their
significance (b) Organisation of the genetic materials in chromosomes, DNA
and RNA (c) Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Reasons for the success
of Mendel in his experiments, Absence of linkage in Mendel’s experiments. (d)
Quantitative inheritance, continuous and discontinuous variation in plants.
(e) Monogenic and polygenic inheritance. (f) Role of Genetics in Plant
breeding, self and crosspollinated crops, methods of breeding in field
cropsintroduction, selection, hybridization, mutation and polyploidy, tissue
and cell culture. (g) Plant Biotechnologydefinition and scope in crop
production. 

Biochemistry: pH
and buffers,Classification and nomenclature of carbohydrates; proteins;
lipids; vitamins and enzymes. 

Microbiology: Microbial cell
structure,Microorganisms Algae, Bacteria, Fungi, Actinomycetes, Protozoa
and Viruses. Role of microorganisms in respiration, fermentation and organic
matter decomposition 
Unit2: 
Livestock
Production 

Scope and importance : (a) Importance of livestock in agriculture
and industry, White revolution in India. (b) Important breeds Indian and
exotic, distribution of cows, buffaloes and poultry in India. 

Care and management : (a) Systems of
cattle and poultry housing (b) Principles of feeding, feeding practices. (c)
Balanced rationdefinition and ingredients. (d) Management of calves,
bullocks, pregnant and milch animals as well as chicks crockrels and layers,
poultry. (e) Signs of sick animals, symptoms of common diseases in 
cattle and poultry, Rinderpest, black
quarter, foot and mouth, mastitis and haemorrhagicsepticaemiacoccidiosis, Fowl
pox and Ranikhet disease, their prevention and control.

Artificial Insemination : Reproductive
organs, collection, dilution and preservation of semen and artificial
insemination, role of artificial
insemination in cattle improvement. Livestock Products: Processing and
marketing of milk and Milk products. 
Unit3: 
Crop Production 

Introduction : (a) Targets and achievements in foodgrain
production in India since independence and its future projections,
sustainable crop production, commercialization of agriculture and its scope
in India. (b) Classification of field crops based on their utilitycereals,
pulses, oils seeds, fibre, sugar and forage crops. 

Soil, Soil fertility, Fertilizers and Manures: (a) Soil, soil pH,
Soil texture, soil structure, soil organisms, soil tilth, soil fertility and
soil health. (b) Essential plant nutrients, their functions and deficiency
symptoms. (c) Soil types of India and their characteristics. (d) Organic
manure, common fertilizers including straight, complex, fertilizer mixtures
and biofertilizers; integrated nutrient management system. 

Irrigation and Drainage: (a) Sources of irrigation (rain, canals,
tanks, rivers, wells, tubewells). (b) Scheduling of irrigation based on
critical stages of growth, time interval, soil moisture content and weather
parameters. (c) Water requirement of crops. (d) Methods of irrigation and
drainage. (e) Watershed management 

Weed Control : Principles of weed control, methods of weed
control (cultural, mechanical, chemical, biological and Integrated weed
management). 

Crops: Seed bed
preparation, seed treatment, time and method of sowing/planting, seed rate;
dose, method and time of fertilizer application, irrigation, interculture and
weed control; common pests and diseases, caused by bacteria, fungi virus and
nematode and their control, integrated pest management, harvesting,
threshing, post harvest technology: storage, processing and marketing of
major field cropsRice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, groundnut,
mustard, pigeonpea, gram, sugarcane, cotton and berseem. 
Unit4: 
Horticulture 
(a) Importance of fruits and
vegetables in human diet, Crop diversification & processing Industry. (b)
Orchardlocation and layout, ornamental gardening and kitchen garden. (c)
Planting system, training, pruning, intercropping, protection from frost and sunburn. (d) Trees,
shrubs, climbers, annuals, perennialsdefinition and examples. Propagation by
seed, cutting, budding, layering and grafting. (e) Cultivation practices,
processing and marketing of: (i) Fruits
 mango, papaya, banana, guava, citrus, grapes. (ii) Vegetables  Radish,
carrot, potato, onion, cauliflower, brinjal, tomato, spinach and cabbage. (iii)
Flowers  Gladiolus, canna, chrysanthemums, roses and marigold. (f) Principles
and methods of fruit and vegetable preservation. (g) Preparation of jellies,
jams, ketchup, chips and their packing.
Note: Besides above syllabi, any other question
of scientific and educational importance may be asked.