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Showing posts with label TS EAMCET SYLLABUS. Show all posts
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Tuesday 29 June 2021

TS EAMCET 2021 30% DELETED SYLLABUS ZOOLOGY

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ZOOLOGY 

 1) ZOOLOGY -

 Diversity of Living World: What is life?; Nature, Scope & meaning of zoology; Branches of Zoology; Need for classification- Zoos as tools for classification; Basic principles of Classification: Biological system of classification- (Phylogenetic classification only); Levels or Hierarchy of classification; Nomenclature - Bi & Trinominal; Species concept; Kingdom Animalia; Biodiversity - Meaning and distribution, Genetic diversity, Species diversity, Ecosystem diversity(alpha, beta and gamma), other attributes of biodiversity, role of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity, methods of conservation, IUCN Red data books, Conservation of wild life in India -Legislation, Preservation, Organisations, Threatened species.

 2) STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN ANIMALS: 

 Levels of organization, Multicellularity: Diploblastic & Triploblastic conditions; Asymmetry, Symmetry: Radial symmetry, and Bilateral symmetry. Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates and Eucoelomates: Schizo & Entero coelomates (Brief account of formation of coelom); Tissues: Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous tissues. 

 3) ANIMAL DIVERSITY-I: INVERTEBRATE PHYLA:

 General Characters – (Strictly restrict to 8 salient features only, Classification up to Classes with two or three examples – Brief account only). Porifera; Cnidaria; Ctenophora; Platyhelminthes; Nematoda; Annelida (Include Earthworm as a type study); Arthropoda; Mollusca; Echinodermata; Hemichordata. 

 4) ANIMAL DIVERSITY-II: PHYLUM: 

CHORDATA General Characters –Classification up to Classes - (Brief account only with two or three examples). Phylum: Chordata; Sub phylum: Urochordata; Sub phylum: Cephalochordata; Sub phylum: Vertebrata; Super class: Agnatha, Class Cyclostomata; Super class: Gnathostomata, Super class pisces, Class: Chondricthyes, Class: Osteichthyes; Tetrapoda, Class: Amphibia (Including the brief type study of Frog) Class: Reptilia, Class: Aves, Class: Mammalia. 

 5) LOCOMOTION & REPRODUCTION IN PROTOZOA: 

 Locomotion: Definition, types of locomotor structures pseudopodia (basic idea of pseudopodia without going into different types), flagella & cilia (Brief account giving two examples each); Flagellar & Ciliary movement - Effective & Recovery strokes in Euglena, Synchronal & Metachronal movements in Paramecium; Reproduction: Definition, types. Asexual Reproduction: Transeverse binary fission in Paramecium & Longitudinal binary fission in Euglena. Multiple fission, Sexual Reproduction. 

 6) BIOLOGY & HUMAN WELFARE: 

 Parasitism and parasitic adaptation; Health and disease: introduction Life cycle, Pathogenicity, Treatment & Prevention (Brief account only) 1. Entamoeba histolytica 2. Plasmodium vivax 3. Ascaris lumbricoides 4. Wuchereria bancrofti; Brief account of pathogenicity, treatment & prevention of Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold, & Ring worm; Tobacco, Drugs and Alcohol abuse (TDA Abuse). 

 7) TYPE STUDY OF PERIPLANETA AMERICANA: 

 Habitat and habits; External features; Locomotion; Digestive system; Respiratory system; Circulatory system; Excretory system; Nervous system - sense organs, structure of ommatidium; Reproductive system.

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 8) ECOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT: 

 What is Ecology, Importance of Ecology, Organisms and Environment: Ecology, population, communities, habitat, niche, biome and ecosphere (definitions only); Ecosystem: Elementary aspects only, Abiotic factors- Light, Temperature & Water (Biological effects only), Ecological adaptations; Population interactions; Ecosystems: Types, Components, Lake ecosystem; Food chains, Food web, Productivity and Energy flow in Ecosystem, Ecological pyramids - Pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy; Nutritient cycling - Carbon, Nitrogen & Phosphorous cycles (Brief account); Population attributes: Growth, Natality and Mortality, Age distribution, Population regulation; Environmental issues. 

 9) HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-I: 

 Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals; Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans - Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiratory movements, Respiratory volumes; Respiratory disorders: Asthma, Emphysema, Bronchitis, Pneumonia, Occupational respiratory disorders - Asbestosis, Silicosis, Siderosis, Black Lung Disease in coal mine workers. 

 10) HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-II: 

 Body Fluids and Circulation: Lymphatic system; Clotting of blood; Human circulatory system - structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, double circulation, circulatory pathways, Portal circulation and coronary circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system: Hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure. Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion - Ammonotelism, Ureotelism, Uricotelism, Excretory organs; Human excretory system - structure of kidney and nephron; Urine formation, osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function -Renin-Angiotensin - Aldosterone system, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders: Uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, glomerular nephritis, dialysis using artificial kidney and kidney transplantation. 

 11) HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-III: 

 Muscular and Skeletal system: The muscle - ultra structure; Contractile proteins & Mechanism of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue, cori cycle, Types of muscle fibers. Neural control and co-ordination: Nervous system in human beings - Central nervous system, Peripheral nervous system and Somatic and autonomic neural system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse, Synaptic transmission. 

 12) HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-IV: 

 Endocrine system and chemical co-ordination, Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system - Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus gland, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary idea only), hormones of kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract, Role of hormones as messengers and regulators; Hypo and Hyper activity and related disorders: Common disorders -Dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome (Diseases & disorders to be dealt in brief).  Immune system: Basic concepts of Immunology - Types of Immunity - Innate Immunity, Acquired Immunity, Active and Passive Immunity, Cell mediated Immunity and Humoral Immunity, Cells of immune system, organs of immune system, soluble mediators of immunity, vaccination or immunization and immunological disorders. 

 13) HUMAN REPRODUCTION: 

 Human Reproductive System: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis & ovary; Gametogenesis, Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilization, Embryo development up to blastocyst formation, Implantation; Pregnancy, placenta formation, Parturition, Lactation (elementary idea). Reproductive Health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control - Need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF-ET, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). 

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 14) GENETICS: 

 Heredity and variations : Mendel’s laws of inheritance with reference to Drosophila. (Drosophila melanogaster Grey, Black body colour; long, vestigial wings), Pleiotropy; Multiple alleles: Inheritance of blood groups and Rh-factor; Codominance (Blood groups as example); Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Skin colour in humans. Sex determination – in humans, birds, Fumea moth, genic balance theory of sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and honey bees; Sex linked inheritance – Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans: Thalassemia, Haemophilia, Sickle celled anaemia, cystiefibrosis PKU, Alkaptonuria; Chromosomal disorders –Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome; Genome, Human Genome Project and DNA Finger Printing. 

 15) APPLIED BIOLOGY: Animal Husbandry, Dairy management, Animal breeding, Apiculture, Beekeeping, Poultry management, Pisciculture, Fishery management, Application of Biotechnology in medicine: Human insulin and vaccine production; Molecular diagnosis Gene Therapy; Transgenic animals; Vaccines, Cancer biology, stem cells.

 Note: (Up to primary concepts in Applied Biology) The following topics are the deleted content of Zoology (30%) in the Intermediate second year for the academic year 2020-21 by the TSBIE as per Telugu academy text book. The same is deleted for the TS EAMCET-2021 examination. 

 1) HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-I 

 Unit-I A: Digestion and absorption: 1.1 Digestive System 1.1.1 Alimentary canal 1.1.2 Digestive glands 1.1.3 Physiology of digestion 1.1.4 Peristalsis 1.1.5 Absorption of digested food Syllabus for TS EAMCET 2021-AM Stream (Agriculture, Pharmacy, Veterinary etc.) 1.1.6 Gastro intestinal hormones 1.1.7 Calorific values of carbohydrates, proteins and fats 1.1.8 Disorders of the digestive system 

 2) HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-III 

Unit-III A: 

Topics in Musculo-Skeletal System 3.2 The Skeleton 3.2.1 Axial skeleton 3.2.2 Appendicular skeleton 3.3 Joints 3.3.1 Types of joints 3.3.2 Structure of synovial joint. 3.4 Disorders of the muscular and skeletal system: myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout. 

 3) HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-III Unit-III B : 

Topics in Neural control and coordination 3.7 Reflex action and reflex arc; 3.8 Sensory reception and processing 3.8.1 The Eye 3.8.2 The mechanism of vision 3.8.3 The Ear 3.8.4 The mechanism of hearing 

 4) ORGANIC EVOLUTION Unit-VII: 

 7.1 Origin of Life 7.2 Biological Evolution 7.3 Evidences for Biological Evolution (palaeontological, comparative anatomical, embryological and molecular evidences); 7.4 Theories of evolution: Lamarckism (in brief), Darwin’s theory of EvolutionNatural Selection with example (Kettlewell’s experiments on Biston betularia), Mutation Theory of Hugo de Vries; 7.5 Modern synthetic theory of Evolution 7.6 Mechanism of evolution- Hardy Weinberg law, Evolutionary forces, Types of Natural Selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Human evolution; Speciation - Allopatric, sympatric; Reproductive isolation. 7.7 A brief account of evolution 7.8 Origin and evolution of man 

 5) APPLIED BIOLOGY 

 Unit-VIII 8.12 Biomedical Technology: Diagnostic Imaging (X-ray, CT scan, MRI), ECG, EEG; ELISA; 

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TS EAMCET 2021 30% DELETED SYLLABUS BOTANY

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Note: Deleted topics are mentioned red in colour for easy understanding at the bottom of the post 

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BOTANY  

The syllabus is in tune with the syllabus adapted by the Telangana State Board of Intermediate Education (TSBIE), for Intermediate course with effect from the academic year 2019-2020 (1st year) (100%) and 2020-2021 (2nd year) (70%) and is designed at the level of Intermediate Course and equivalent to 10 + 2 (10 plus 2) scheme of Examination conducted by Telangana State Board of Intermediate Education. The syllabus is designed to indicate the scope of subjects included for TS EAMCET-2021. The topics mentioned therein are not to be regarded as exhaustive. Questions may be asked in TS EAMCET-2021 to test the student’s knowledge and intelligent understanding of the subject. The syllabus is applicable to students of both the current and previous batches of Intermediate Course, who desire to appear for TS EAMCET2021. 


 1) DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD: 

 The living world: What is living? Diversity in the living world; Taxonomic categories and taxonomical aids. Biological Classification: Five kingdom classification - Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia, Three domains of life (six kingdom classification), Viruses, Viroids, Prions & Lichens. Science of plants – Botany: Origin, Development, Scope of Botany and Branches of Botany. Plant Kingdom: Salient features, classification and alternation of generations of the plants of the following groups - Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. 

 2) STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN PLANTS- MORPHOLOGY: Morphology of flowering Plants Vegetative: Parts of a typical Angiospermic plant; Vegetative morphology and modificationsRoot, Stem and Leaf- types; Venation, Phyllotaxy. Reproductive: Inflorescence - Racemose, Cymose and special types (in brief). Flower: Parts of a flower and their detailed description; Aestivation, Placentation. Fruits: Types- True, False and Parthenocarpic fruits. 

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 3) REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS: 

 Modes of Reproduction: Asexual reproduction, binary fission, Sporulation, budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation in plants, Sexual reproduction, Overview of angiosperm life cycle. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants: Stamen, microsporangium, pollen grain. Pistil, megasporangium (ovule) and embryo sac; Development of male and female gametophytes. Pollination - Types, agents, Out breeding devices and Pollen - Pistil interaction. Double Fertilization; Post fertilisation events: Development of endosperm and embryo; development of seed, Structure of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous seeds, Significance of fruit and seed. Special modes - Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony. 

 4) PLANT SYSTEMATICS: 

 Taxonomy of angiosperms: Introduction. Types of Systems of classification (in brief). SemiTechnical description of a typical flowering plant. Description of Families: Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Liliaceae.

5) CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: 

 Cell - The Unit of Life: Cell- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life- overview of the cell. Prokaryotic and Eukoryotic cells, Ultra Structure of Plant cell (structure in detail and functions in brief), Cell membrane, Cell wall, Cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Mitochondria, Plastids, Ribosomes, Golgi bodies, Vacuoles, Lysosomes, Microbodies, Centrosome and Centriole, Cilia, Flagella, Cytoskeleton and Nucleus. Chromosomes: Number, structural organization; Nucleosome. Biomolecules: Structure and function of Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic acids. Cell cycle and Cell Division: Cell cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis - significance. 

 6) INTERNAL ORGANISATION OF PLANTS: 

 Histology and Anatomy of Flowering Plants: Tissues - Types, structure and functions: Meristematic; Permanent tissues - Simple and Complex tissues. Tissue systems - Types, structure and function: Epidermal, Ground and Vascular tissue systems. Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous plants - Root, Stem and Leaf. Secondary growth in Dicot stem and Dicot root. 

 7) PLANT ECOLOGY:

 Ecological Adaptations, Succession and Ecological Services: Introduction. Plant communities and Ecological adaptations: Hydrophytes, Mesophytes and Xerophytes. Plant succession. Ecological services - Carbon fixation, Oxygen release and pollination. 

 8) PLANT PHYSIOLOGY: 

 Enzymes: Chemical Reactions, Enzymatic Conversions, Nature of Enzyme Action, Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity, Temperature and pH, Concentration of Substrate, Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes, Co-factors. Photosynthesis in Higher Plants: Early Experiments, Site of Photosynthesis, Pigments involved in Photosynthesis, Light Reaction, The Electron Transport-Splitting of Water, Cyclic and Noncyclic Photo-phosphorylation, Chemiosmotic Hypothesis, Biosynthetic phaseThe Primary Acceptor of CO2, The Calvin Cycle, The C4 Pathway, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Respiration of Plants: Glycolysis, Fermentation, Aerobic Respiration - Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, Electron Transport System (ETS) and Oxidative Phosphorylation, The Respiratory Balance Sheet, Amphibolic Pathway, Respiratory Quotient. Plant Growth and Development: Plant Growth Regulators- Characteristics, Discovery, Physiological effects of Plant Growth Regulators, Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic acid. 

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 9) GENETICS: 

 Principles of Inheritance and Variation: Mendel’s Experiments, Inheritance of one gene (Monohybrid Cross)-Back cross and Test cross, Law of Dominance, Law of Segregation or Law of purity of gametes, Deviations from Mendelian concept of dominance  - Incomplete Dominance, Co-dominance, Explanation of the concept of dominance, Inheritance of two genes- (Dihybrid Cross) Law of Independent Assortment, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Linkage and Recombination, Mutations, Significance of mutations. 

 10) MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: 

 Molecular Basis of inheritance: The DNA- Structure of Polynucleotide Chain, Packaging of DNA Helix, The Search for Genetic Material, Transforming Principle, Biochemical Characterisation of Transforming Principle, The Genetic Material is DNA, Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA), RNA World, Replication - The Experimental Proof, The Machinery and the Enzymes, Transcription-Transcription Unit, Transcription Unit and the Gene, Types of RNA and the process of Transcription, Genetic Code-Mutations and Genetic Code, tRNA- the Adapter Molecule, Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression-The Lac operon. 

 11) Biotechnology: 

 Principles and processes of Biotechnology: Principles of Biotechnology-Construction of the first artificial recombinant DNA molecule, Tools of Recombinant DNA TechnologyRestriction Enzymes, Cloning Vectors, Competent Host (For Transformation with Recombinant DNA), Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology- Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA), Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations, Separation and isolation of DNA fragments, Insertion of isolated gene into a suitable vector, Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR, Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host, Cell/Organism, Selection of Transformed host cells, Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product, Downstream Processing. Biotechnology and its applications: Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture-Bt Cotton, Pest Resistant Plants, Other applications of Biotechnology - Insulin, Gene therapy, Molecular Diagnosis, ELISA, DNA fingerprinting, Transgenic plants, Bio-safety and Ethical issues- Biopiracy.

 12) MICROBES AND HUMAN WELFARE: 

 Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household Products, Microbes in Industrial Products-Fermented Beverages, Antibiotics, Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules, Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Primary treatment, Secondary treatment or Biological treatment, Microbes in Production of Biogas, Microbes as Biocontrol Agents, Biological control of pests and diseases, Microbes as Biofertilisers, Challenges posed by Microbes. 

 The following topics are the deleted content of Botany (30%) in the Intermediate second year for the academic year 2020-21 by the TSBIE as per Telugu academy text book. The same is deleted for the TS EAMCET-2021 examination. 

 Unit I - PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 1: Transport in Plants 

 Chapter 2: Mineral Nutrition 

 Chapter 6: Plant Growth and Development 6.1 Growth 6.2 Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation 6.3 Development 6.5 Seed Dormancy 6.6 Photoperiodism 6.7 Vernalisation 

 Unit II - MICROBIOLOGY 

 Chapter 7: Bacteria 

 Chapter 8: Viruses 

 Unit VI- PLANTS, MICROBES AND HUMAN WELFARE 

 Chapter 13: Strategies for enhancement in Food production

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TS EAMCET 2021 30% DELETED SYLLABUS CHEMISTRY

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 Note: Deleted topics are mentioned red in colour for easy understanding at the bottom of the post 

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CHEMISTRY

 

1)        ATOMIC STRUCTURE: Introduction; Sub- atomic particles; Atomic models – Thomson’s Model; Rutherford’s Nuclear model of atom, Drawbacks; Developments to the Bohr’s model of atom; Nature of electromagnetic radiation; Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation- Planck’s quantum theory; Bohr’s model for Hydrogen atom; Explanation of line spectrum of hydrogen; Limitations of Bohr’s model; Quantum mechanical considerations of sub atomic     particles; Dual behaviour of matter; Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; Quantum mechanical model of an atom.   Important features of Quantum mechanical model of atom; Orbitals and quantum numbers; Shapes of atomic orbitals; Energies of orbitals; Filling of orbitals in atoms. Aufbau Principle, Pauli’s exclusion Principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity; Electronic configurations of atoms; Stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.      

 

2)        CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES: Need to classify elements; Genesis of periodic classification; Modern periodic law and present form of the periodic table; Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100; Electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table; Electronic configuration and types of elements s, p, d and f blocks; Trends in physical properties: (a) Atomic radius, (b) Ionic radius (c) Variation of size in inner transition elements, (d) Ionization enthalpy, (e) Electron gain enthalpy, (f) Electro negativity; Periodic trends in chemical properties: (a) Valence or Oxidation states, (b) Anomalous properties of second period elements - diagonal relationship; Periodic trends and chemical reactivity.                                                                           

 

3)        CHEMICAL BONDING AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE: Kossel - Lewis approach to chemical bonding, Octet rule, Representation of simple molecules, formal charges, limitations of octet rule; Ionic or electrovalent bond - Factors favorable for the formation of ionic compounds-Crystal structure of sodium chloride, Lattice enthalpy; General properties of ionic compounds; Bond Parameters - bond length, bond angle,  bond enthalpy, bond order, resonance - Polarity of bonds dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory; Predicting the geometry of simple molecules; Valence bond theory-Orbital overlap concept-Directional properties of bonds-overlapping of atomic orbitals, strength of sigma and pi bonds-Factors favouring the formation of covalent bonds; Hybridisation- different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals- shapes of simple covalent molecules; Coordinate bond -definition with examples; Molecular orbital theory - Formation of molecular orbitals, Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)-conditions for combination of atomic orbitals -  Energy level diagrams for molecular orbitals -Bonding in some homo nuclear diatomic molecules- H2, He2, Li2, B2, C2, N2 and O2; Hydrogen bonding-cause of formation of hydrogen bond - Types of hydrogen bonds-inter and intra molecular-General properties of hydrogen bonds.     

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4)        STATES OF MATTER: GASES AND LIQUIDS: Intermolecular forces; Thermal Energy; Intermolecular forces vs Thermal interactions; The Gaseous State; The Gas Laws; Ideal gas equation; Graham’s law of diffusion - Dalton’s Law of partial pressures; Kinetic molecular theory of gases; Kinetic gas equation of an ideal gas (No derivation); deduction of gas laws from Kinetic gas equation; Distribution of molecular speeds - rms, average and most probable speeds-Kinetic energy of gas molecules; Behaviour of real gases - Deviation from Ideal gas behaviour - Compressibility factor vs Pressure diagrams of real gases; Liquefaction of gases; Liquid State - Properties of Liquids in terms of Inter molecular interactions - Vapour pressure, Viscosity and Surface tension (Qualitative idea only. No mathematical derivation).                    

5)        STOICHIOMETRY: Some basic concepts - Properties of matter - uncertainty in Measurement-significant figures, dimensional analysis; Laws of Chemical Combinations - Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of Definite Proportions, Law of Multiple Proportions,      Gay-Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes, Dalton’s Atomic Theory, Avogadro’s Law, Atomic and molecular masses- mole concept and molar mass. Concept of equivalent weight; Percentage composition of compounds and calculations of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds; Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations; Methods of expressing concentrations of solutions-mass percent, mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality; Redox reactions-classical idea of redox reactions, oxidation and reduction reactions-redox reactions in terms of electron transfer; Oxidation number concept; Types of Redox reactionscombination, decomposition, displacement and disproportionation reactions; Balancing of redox reactions - oxidation number method Half reaction (ion-electron) method; Redox reactions in Titrimetry.

 

6)        THERMODYNAMICS: Thermodynamic Terms; The system and the surroundings; Types of systems and surroundings; The state of the system; The Internal Energy as a State Function. (a) Work (b) Heat (c) The general case, the first law of Thermodynamics; Applications; Work; Enthalpy, H- a useful new state function; Extensive and intensive properties; Heat capacity; The relationship between Cp   and Cv; Measurement of U and H: Calorimetry; Enthalpy change, rH of reactions - reaction Enthalpy (a) Standard enthalpy of reactions, (b) Enthalpy changes during phase transformations, (c) Standard enthalpy of formation, (d) Thermo chemical equations (e) Hess’s law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies for different types of reactions. (a) Standard enthalpy of combustion (∆cH), (b) Enthalpy of atomization (∆aH), phase transition, sublimation and ionization, (c) Bond Enthalpy (∆bondH ), (d) Enthalpy of solution (∆solH) and dilution; Spontaneity. (a) Is decrease in enthalpy a criterion for spontaneity? (b) Entropy and spontaneity, the second law of thermodynamics, (c) Gibbs Energy and spontaneity; Gibbs Energy change and equilibrium; Absolute entropy and the third law of thermodynamics.                                                                                                                               

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7)        CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND ACIDS-BASES: Equilibrium in Physical processes; Equilibrium in chemical processes - Dynamic Equilibrium; Law of chemical Equilibrium - Law of mass action and Equilibrium constant; Homogeneous Equilibria, Equilibrium constant in gaseous systems.   Relationship between KP and Kc; Heterogeneous Equilibria; Applications of Equilibrium constant; Relationship between Equilibrium constant K, reaction quotient Q and Gibbs energy G; Factors affecting Equilibria.-Le Chatelier’s principle application to industrial synthesis of Ammonia and Sulphur trioxide; Ionic Equilibrium in solutions; Acids, bases and salts- Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concepts of acids and bases; Ionisation of Acids and Bases -Ionisation constant of water and its ionic product- pH scale-ionisation constants of weak acids-ionisation of weak bases-relation between Ka and Kb-Di and poly basic acids and di and poly acidic Bases-Factors affecting acid strength-Common ion effect in the ionization of acids and bases-Hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions; Buffer solutionsdesigning of buffer solution-Preparation of Acidic buffer; Solubility Equilibria of sparingly soluble salts.   Solubility product constant, Common ion effect on solubility of ionic salts.                       

                                    

8)        HYDROGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS: Position of hydrogen in the periodic table; Dihydrogen-Occurrence and Isotopes; Preparation and properties of Dihydrogen; Hydrides: Ionic, covalent, and non-stoichiometric hydrides; Water: Physical properties; structure of water, ice. Chemical properties of water; hard and soft water, Temporary and permanent hardness of water; Hydrogen peroxide: Preparation; Physical properties; structure and chemical properties; storage and uses; Heavy Water; Hydrogen as a fuel.         

                        

9)        THE s - BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS)   

Group 1 Elements : Alkali metals; Electronic configurations; Atomic and Ionic radii;  

Ionization enthalpy; Hydration enthalpy; Physical properties; Chemical properties; Uses; General characteristics of the compounds of the alkali metals: Oxides; Halides; Salts of oxo Acids; Anomalous properties of Lithium: Differences and similarities with other alkali metals, Diagonal relationship; similarities between Lithium and Magnesium; Some important compounds of Sodium: Sodium Carbonate; Sodium Chloride; Sodium Hydroxide; Sodium hydrogen carbonate; Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium.

Group 2 Elements: Alkaline earth elements; Electronic configuration; Ionization enthalpy; Hydration enthalpy; Physical properties, Chemical properties; Uses; General characteristics of compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals: Oxides, hydroxides, halides, salts of oxoacids (Carbonates; Sulphates and Nitrates); Anomalous behavior of Beryllium; its diagonal relationship with Aluminium; Some important compounds of calcium: Preparation and uses of Calcium Oxide; Calcium Hydroxide; Calcium Carbonate; Plaster of Paris; Cement; Biological importance of Calcium and Magnesium.                     

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10)    p- BLOCK ELEMENTS GROUP 13 (BORON FAMILY): 

General introduction - Electronic configuration, Atomic radii, Ionization enthalpy, Electro negativity; Physical & Chemical properties; Important trends and anomalous properties of boron; Some important compounds of boron - Borax, Ortho boric acid, diborane; Uses of boron, aluminium and their compounds.        

 

11)    p-BLOCK ELEMENTS - GROUP 14 (CARBON FAMILY): 

General introduction - Electronic configuration, Atomic radii, Ionization enthalpy, Electro negativity; Physical & Chemical properties; Important trends and anomalous properties of carbon; Allotropes of carbon; Uses of carbon; Some important compounds of carbon and silicon – carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, Silica, silicones, silicates and zeolites.     

 

12)    ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: 

Definition of terms: Air, Water and Soil Pollutions; Environmental Pollution; Atmospheric pollution; Tropospheric Pollution; Gaseous Air Pollutants (Oxides of Sulphur; Oxides of Nitrogen; Hydrocarbons; Oxides of Carbon (CO, CO2)). Global warming and Greenhouse effect; Acid rain- Particulate Pollutants- Smog; Stratospheric Pollution: Formation and breakdown of Ozone- Ozone hole- effects of depletion of the Ozone Layer; Water Pollution: Causes of Water Pollution; International standards for drinking water; Soil Pollution: Pesticides, Industrial Wastes; Strategies to control environmental pollution- waste Management- collection and disposal; Green Chemistry: Green chemistry in day-to-day life;

Dry cleaning of clothes; Bleaching of paper; Synthesis of chemicals                                        

                                       

13)    ORGANIC CHEMISTRY-SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES, TECHNIQUES 

        AND HYDROCARBONS

 SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES 

General introduction; Tetravalency of Carbon: shapes of organic compounds; Structural representations of organic compounds; Classification of organic compounds; Nomenclature of organic compounds; Isomerism; Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanisms; Fission of covalent bond; Nucleophiles and electrophiles; Electron movements in organic reactions; Electron displacement effects in covalent bonds: inductive effect, resonance, resonance effect, electromeric effect, hyperconjugation; Types of Organic Reactions; Methods of purification of organic compounds; Qualitative elemental analysis of organic compounds; Quantitative elemental analysis of organic compounds.                                                

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HYDROCARBONS

Classification of Hydrocarbons; Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism (structural and conformations of ethane only); Preparation of alkanes; Properties - Physical properties and chemical Reactivity, Substitution reactions -   Halogenation(free radical mechanism), Combustion, Controlled Oxidation, Isomerisation, Aromatization, reaction with steam and Pyrolysis; Alkenes- Nomenclature, structure of ethene, Isomerism (structural and geometrical);  Methods of preparation; Properties- Physical and chemical reactions: Addition of Hydrogen, halogen, water, sulphuric acid, Hydrogen halides (Mechanism- ionic and peroxide effect, Markovnikov’s, anti-Markovnikov’s or Kharasch effect). Oxidation, Ozonolysis and Polymerization; Alkynes - Nomenclature and isomerism, structure of acetylene. Methods of preparation of acetylene; Physical properties, Chemical reactions- acidic character of acetylene, addition reactions- of hydrogen, Halogen, Hydrogen halides and water. Polymerization; Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Nomenclature and isomerism, Structure of benzene, Resonance and aromaticity; Preparation of benzene. Physical properties. Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Electrophilic substitution reactions- Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Directive influence of functional groups in mono substituted benzene, Carcinogenicity and toxicity 

                                     

14)  SOLID STATE: 

General characteristics of solid state; Amorphous and crystalline solids; Classification of crystalline solids  based  on different  binding  forces (molecular,  ionic,  metallic  and  covalent solids); Probing the structure of solids: X-ray crystallography; Crystal  lattices  and  unit  cells. Number of atoms in a unit cell  (primitive, body  centred  and  face  centred  cubic  unit  cell); Close  packed structures: Close packing in one dimension,  in two dimensions and in three dimensions- tetrahedral and octahedral voids- formula of a compound  and  number  of  voids  filled-locating  tetrahedral  and octahedral voids; Packing efficiency in simple cubic, bcc and in hcp,  ccp  lattice; Calculations  involving  unit  cell  dimensions-density of the unit cell; Imperfections in solids-types of point defects-stoichiometric   and   non-stoichiometric   defects. 

 

15)  SOLUTIONS: 

Types of solutions; Expressing concentration of solutions - mass percentage, volume percentage, mass by volume percentage, parts  per  million,  mole  fraction,  molarity  and  molality; Solubility: Solubility of a solid in a liquid, solubility of a gas in a liquid, Henry’s law; Vapour pressure of liquid solutions: vapour pressure of liquid- liquid solutions. Raoult’s law   as a special case of Henry’s law -vapour pressure of solutions of solids in liquids; Ideal and non-ideal  solutions; Colligative  properties  and determination of molar mass-relative lowering of vapour pressure-elevation of boiling point-depression of freezing point-osmosis and osmotic   pressure-reverse   osmosis   and   water   purification. 

 

16)  ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS:  

 

ELECTROCHEMISTRY: 

Nernst equation-equilibrium constant from Nernst equation - electro chemical cell and Gibbs energy of the cell reaction; Conductance of electrolytic solutions - measurement of the conductivity of ionic solutions-variation of conductivity and molar  conductivity  with  concentration-strong  electrolytes  and weak electrolytes-applications of Kohlrausch’s law;   Electrolysis:  Faraday’s  laws  of  electrolysis-products  of electrolysis. 

 

CHEMICAL KINETICS: Rate of a chemical reaction; Factors influencing rate of a reaction:   dependance of rate on concentration- rate expression and rate constant- order of a reaction, molecularity of a reaction; Integrated rate equations-zero order reactions-first order 

reactions - half life of a reaction; Pseudo first order   reaction; Temperature dependence of the rate of a reaction - Effect of catalyst.                                                                                        

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17)  SURFACE CHEMISTRY: Adsorption and absorption:  Distinction between  adsorption and absorption-mechanism  of adsorption-types of  adsorption-characteristics of physisorptioncharacteristics of chemisorption-adsorption isotherms-adsorption from solution phaseapplications of adsorption. 

Colloids; Classification of colloids: Classification based on physical state of dispersed phase and dispersion medium- classification based on nature of interaction between dispersed phase and dispersion medium- classification based on type of particles of the dispersed phase- multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids- cleansing  action  of  soaps-preparation  of  colloids-purification of  colloidal solutions- properties of colloidal solutions: Tyndal effect, colour, Brownian movement-charge on colloidal particles, electrophoresis. Coagulation or precipitation, Coagulation of lyophilic sols, protection of colloids, Colloids around us, Applications of colloids.       

                         

18)  p-BLOCK ELEMENTS: 

 

GROUP-15 ELEMENTS: Occurrence- electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, electronegativity, physical and   chemical properties; Dinitrogenpreparation, properties and uses; Compounds of nitrogen-preparation, properties and uses of ammonia; Oxides of nitrogen; Preparation and properties and uses of nitric acid;  Phosphorousallotropic   forms;     

GROUP-16 ELEMENTS: Occurrence- electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, physical    and    chemical    properties; Dioxygen-preparation, properties and uses; Simple oxides; Ozone-preparation, properties, structure and uses; Sulphur-allotropic   forms; Sulphur   dioxide-preparation, properties and uses; Oxoacids of sulphur; Sulphuric acid- properties and uses only.

GROUP-17 ELEMENTS: Occurrence, electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, physical and chemical properties; Chlorine- preparation, properties and uses; Hydrogen chloride- preparation, properties and uses; Oxoacids of   halogens; Interhalogen compounds. 

GROUP-18 ELEMENTS: Occurrence, electronic configuration, ionization enthalpy, atomic  radii, electron gain enthalpy, physical  and chemical  properties(a)  Xenon-fluorine  compounds - XeF2, XeF4 and  XeF6 -preparation, hydrolysis  and  formation  of  fluoro anions-structures 

of  XeF2,  XeF4  and  XeF6 (b)  Xenon-oxygen compounds XeO3 and XeOF4 - their formation and structures. Uses.            

 

19) d  AND  f  BLOCK  ELEMENTS  & COORDINATION COMPOUNDS: 

 

d AND f BLOCK ELEMENTS :Position in the periodic table; Electronic configuration of the d-block elements; General properties of the transition elements (d-block) -physical properties, variation in atomic and ionic sizes of   transition series,   ionisation enthalpies, oxidation states, trends  in  the  +/M  and  +/M²+  standard  electrode potentials, trends in stability of higher oxidation states, chemical reactivity  and    Eθ  values,  magnetic  properties,  formation  of coloured   ions,   formation   of   complex compounds, catalytic properties, formation of interstitial compounds, alloy formation. 

COORDINATION COMPOUNDS: Werner’s theory of coordination compounds;

Definitions of   some   terms   used   in   coordination   compounds; Nomenclature of coordination compounds-IUPAC nomenclature; Isomerism in coordination compounds- (a)Stereo isomerism-Geometrical and optical isomerism (b)Structural isomerism-linkage, coordination, ionisation and hydrate isomerism; Bonding in coordination compounds.  (a)Valence bond theory - magnetic  properties  of  coordination  compounds-limitations  of valence bond theory  (b)    Crystal field theory (i) Crystal field splitting   in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination entities (ii) Colour in coordination compounds-limitations of crystal  field theory; Bonding in metal carbonyls; Stability  of coordination  compounds; Importance  and  applications  of coordination compounds.       

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20)   BIOMOLECULES: Carbohydrates- Classification of carbohydrates-Monosaccharides:  preparation  of glucose  from  sucrose  and starch- Properties and structure of glucose - D, L and  (+),  (-) configurations of glucose- Structure of  fructose.  

Amino acids:  Natural amino acids - classification  of  amino acids - structures and D and L forms-Zwitterions; Proteins: Structures, classification, fibrous and globular- primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins- Denaturation of proteins.

Nucleic acids: chemical composition of nucleic acids, structures of  nucleic  acids,  DNA  finger  printing, biological functions  of  nucleic  acids.      

 

21)   HALOALKANES AND HALOARENES: Classification and nomenclature; Nature of  

C-X bond; Methods  of  preparation:  Alkyl  halides  and  aryl  halides-from alcohols, from hydrocarbons (a) by free radical halogenation (b) by electrophilic  substitution (c)  by  replacement  of diazonium    group (Sandmeyer reaction)  (d) by the addition of hydrogen   halides   and   halogens   to   alkenes-by   halogen exchange (Finkelstein reaction); Physical properties-melting and boiling points, density and solubility; Chemical reactions: Reactions of haloalkanes  (i) Nucleophilic substitution reactions (a) SN² mechanism (b) SN¹  mechanism  (c) stereochemical aspects of nucleophilic substitution reactions-optical activity (ii)  Elimination  reactions (iii)  Reaction  with  metals-Reactions  of haloarenes: (i) Nucleophilic    substitution (ii)Electrophilic substitution  and (iii) Reaction  with  metals.        

22)   ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING C, H AND O (Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers,    Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids): 

 

ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS 

Alcohols, phenols and  ethers - classification; Nomenclature: (a)Alcohols, (b)phenols and           (c) ethers; Structures  of  hydroxy  and  ether  functional  groups; Methods  of  preparation: Alcohols from alkenes and carbonyl compounds (reduction and reaction with Grignard reagents); Phenols from haloarenes, benzene sulphonic acid, diazonium salts, cumene; Physical properties of alcohols and phenols;  Chemical  reactions  of  alcohols  and  phenols (i) Reactions involving cleavage of O-H bond-Acidity of alcohols and phenols, esterification  (ii) Reactions involving cleavage of C-O bond -  reactions  with  HX,  PX3,  dehydration  and  oxidation  (iii) Reactions of phenols - electrophilic aromatic substitution, Kolbe’s reaction,  Reimer  -  Tiemann  reaction,  reaction  with zinc  dust, oxidation.

Ethers-Methods of preparation:  By dehydration   of   alcohols, Williamson synthesis -   Physical Properties - Chemical reactions:  Cleavage of C-O bond and electrophilic substitution of aromatic ethers.              

 

ALDEHYDES AND KETONES 

Nomenclature   and   structure   of   carbonyl   group; Preparation of aldehydes and  ketones(1) by oxidation of alcohols (2)   by   dehydrogenation   of   alcohols (3)   from hydrocarbons Preparation of aldehydes (1) from acyl chlorides (2) from nitriles and esters (3) from hydrocarbons-Preparation of  ketones (1) from acyl chlorides (2) from nitriles (3) from benzene or substituted benzenes;  Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones; Chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones-nucleophilic addition, reduction, oxidation, reactions due to alpha  Hydrogen and other reactions (Cannizzaro reaction, electrophilic substitution reaction); Uses of aldehydes and ketones. 

                                                                                                 

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS 

Nomenclature  and  structure  of  carboxyl group; Methods  of  preparation  of  carboxylic  acids (1)from  primary alcohols  and  aldehydes  (2)  from  alkylbenzenes(3)from  nitriles  and amides (4)from Grignard reagents (5) from acyl halides and anhydrides (6)  from  esters; Physical  properties; Chemical reactions: (i) Reactions involving cleavage of O-H bond-acidity, reactions with metals and alkalies (ii) Reactions involving  cleavage  of  C-OH  bond-formation  of  anhydride, reactions with PCl5, PCl3, SOCl2, esterification and reaction with ammonia           (iii) Reactions   involving-COOH  group-reduction, decarboxylation  (iv)  Substitution  reactions  in  the  hydrocarbon part -  halogenation  and  ring     substitution; Uses  of carboxylic acids.        

 

23) ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN:

 

AMINES

Structure of amines; Classification; Nomenclature; Preparation  of  amines: reduction  of  nitro  compounds, ammonolysis of alkyl halides, reduction of nitriles, reduction of amides, Gabriel phthalimide synthesis and Hoffmann bromamide degradation   reaction; Physical properties; Chemical reactions: basic character of amines, alkylation, acylation, carbyl amine  reaction, 

reaction  with  nitrous  acid,  reaction  with  aryl sulphonyl chloride, electrophilic substitution of aromatic amines-bromination, nitration and Sulphonation.     

 

The following topics are the deleted content of CHEMISTRY (30%) in the Intermediate Second Year for the Academic Year 2020-21 by the TSBIE as per Telugu Academy text Book. The same is deleted for the TS EAMCET-2021 Examination.

 

Chapter 1 Solid state 

1.11 Electrical properties

1.12 Magnetic properties (Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors)

 

Chapter 2 Solutions 

2.7 Abnormal molar masses-Van’t Hoff factor.

 

Chapter 3 Electrochemistry and Chemical Kinetics 

Electrochemistry

3.1 Electrochemical cells

3.2 Galvanic cells

3.5 Electrolytic cells

            3.6 Batteries: primary and secondary batteries                               

3.7 Fuel cells

3.8 Corrosion of metals-Hydrogen economy

Chemical kinetics

3.14 Collision theory of chemical reaction rates.

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Chapter 4 Surface Chemistry

4.2 catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous, Adsorption theory of heterogenous catalysis,  activity and selectivity of solid catalysis, Shape-selective catalysis by zeolites, Enzyme catalysis, Catalysts in industry.

 4.5 Emulsions – types of emulsions

 

Chapter 5 General Principles of Metallurgy       Entire chapter is deleted

 

Chapter 6   P-block Elements

Group-15 Elements

6.7 Phosphine-preparation, properties and uses

6.8 Phosphorous halides

6.9 Oxoacids of phosphorous

Group -16 Elements

6.17 Sulphuric acid-manufacture.

 

Chapter 7    d and f Block Elements & Coordination Compounds d and f Block Elements 

7.4 Some important compounds of transition elements

7.5 Inner transition elements

7.6 Actinoids

7.7 Some applications of d and f block elements.

 

Chapter 8 Polymers 

Entire chapter is deleted

 

Chapter 9 Biomolecules 

9.1 Disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen), importance of carbohydrates.

9.3 Enzymes: Enzymes, mechanism of enzyme action

9.4 Vitamins 9.6 Hormones.

 

Chapter 10 Chemistry in Everyday life Entire chapter is deleted

 

Chapter 11 Halo Alkanes and Halo Arenes

11.6 Polyhalogeno compounds.

 

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Chapter 12 Organic Compounds Containing C, H and O

12.7 Some Commercially important alcohols (uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol)

 

Chapter 13 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen 

II.      Diazonium salts

13.7      Methods of preparation of diazonium salts

13.8      Physical properties

13.9      Chemical reactions

13.10  Importance of diazonium salts in synthesis of aromatic compounds

III.    Cyanides and Isocyanides

13.11  Structure and nomenclature of cyanides and isocyanides 

13.12  Preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions of cyanides and isocyanides.

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